There are a number of preprint servers for the health and life sciences where you can submit your own preprint, or read, download, and comment on preprints that have been shared. Uploaded content is screened for appropriateness, plagiarism, and health or security risks before being publicly posted. Most sites assign DOIs (a unique digital object identifier) to each preprint.
- arXiv (physics, math, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics) arXiv was the first preprint server and has over 1.5 million preprints started in 1991 and hosted by Cornell University. Pronounced "archive", and the inspiration for the naming of several subsequent servers.
- bioRxiv (biological sciences). Began operations in 2013, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL). The largest server in its field with over 50,000 preprints, bioRxiv links from preprint to published articles and integrates with selected journal submission systems.
- medRxiv (health sciences). Launched June 2019, founded by CSHL, Yale University and BMJ, and hosted by CSHL. Includes subject areas for Dentistry, Nursing, Pharmacology, and Physical Therapy.
- OSF Preprints (multiple disciplines). Open Science Framework offers 8000 unique preprints in ten broad disciplines Open source and produced by the non-profit Center for Open Science. Includes an integrated search interface across major preprint servers.
- PeerJ PrePrints (medicine, biology, computer science). 5000 preprints from the open access publisher PeerJ.
- Preprints.org (multiple disciplines). 10,000 preprints in all STEM fields. Produced by the open access publisher MDPI.
- PsyArXiv (psychological sciences). Over 5000 preprints; uses OSF Preprints infrastructure.
- SocArXiv (social sciences). 4000 preprints; uses OSF Preprints infrastructure.
Because preprints are not indexed in major search engines like PubMed and Web of Science, use these resources to search preprints from multiple sources:
- Preprint Archive Search from OSF – searches over 2 million preprints from arXiv, bioRxiv, OSF Preprints and its partners, PeerJ Preprints, and Preprints.org
- search.bioPreprint from University of Pittsburgh - searches arXiv's quantitative biology section, bioRxiv, F1000 Research, PeerJ Preprints, Preprints.org, and Wellcome Open Research
Google Scholar includes preprint servers in its search results, but does not single them out as such so they can be difficult to discern. Below an article citation, click on "all x versions". Scan the resulting list for a preprint server URL, e.g. "[HTML] biorxiv.org".
Visit our Getting Published page for more information or to connect with a scholarly communication expert.